This is part one, a summary of what a quantum computer is. Part two will address what they can do, and who the players are.
Quantum Computing: In Five Years, This is All You’ll Hear About
I’d love to rise to the challenge to explaining what a quantum computer is, as opposed to “classical computers.” Not gonna happen. In order to wrap your mind around the enormously complex and counterintuitive mechanics of how they work, you’d have to revisit what you’d learned in high school and college chemistry and physics classes in order to even begin understanding the mysterious and seemingly supernatural nature of what goes on inside a quantum chip.
About the word “supernatural”: The fact is, scientists cannot explain “quantum behavior.” The realm of quantum physics was discovered piecemeal through the late 1800s and early 1900s, but became a formalized branch of physics upon the publication of Werner Heisenberg’s 1927 world-shattering paper. You may have heard of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. (Fans of Breaking Bad will recognize the name).
You may also have heard of “Schrodinger’s Cat.” That was a thought experiment devised by Erwin Schrodinger in 1935; his goal was to elicit a more scientifically reasonable interpretation for what he and his colleagues had discovered—one that would do away with the “magic” and highlight the absurd conclusions their experiments suggested.
What was the conclusion that drove him and Einstein nuts? Evidence implied—no, revealed—than at the most fundamental level of reality, one thing can exist in two locations simultaneously.
We’ve had since 1927 to figure this problem out. Almost 100 years later, scientists are still baffled. And that’s not even the beginning. The deeper we probed into the fabric of reality, the more mind-boggling it became. At a quantum level, the laws that govern our rational world utterly break down. A certain class of particles can move both forward and backwards in time, the relationship between cause and effect is swapped; the particles that make up all the atoms in the universe don’t quite exist until they’re observed, looked at; information at a quantum level can be sent and received instantaneously, even if the information must travel from one end of the universe to the next (therefore apparently breaking nature’s primary law that nothing can go faster than the speed of light); particles can teleport; they can appear out of nothing and return to nothing. Probe down even further, and waiting there will states and interactions that suggest, rather convincingly, that all of space is pixelated, like an old computer screen—as if we are living inside a computer. Furthermore, the events happening at a quantum level suggest strongly the existence of other dimensions, invisible to our 3D brains. In fact, the results of the last fifty years of experiments imply the existence of parallel universes—this is not a fringe interpretation or a minority belief; many of the most brilliant scientists of our time have taken a stake in the parallel universe supposition.
In fact, the early pioneers of quantum computing took it as a fact. To them—and many today—the reason why we can make quantum computations is hinged upon the presence of parallel realities.
This is bat poop crazy-sounding, right? We’ve had almost a hundred years to rule out all the irrational explanations, and we’ve made zero progress in doing so.
The odd behavior of quantum systems allows us to be able to create an unbreakable form of encryption.
Here’s some bullet points:
There’s no “if,” only “when.” The prevalence of quantum computing—in the world, and as a stock market mega-sector—will arrive, unless someone solves a thousand century-old riddles and proves the entire theory wrong. The likelihood of that is infinitesimal.
Conservative estimates argue that the age of quantum computers is ten to fifteen years ago.
Realistic estimates—provided the world doesn’t go apocalyptic—map it at about five years.
If you’re hoping to multiply in this area, you’re need to sit back and relax for a number of years. I can’t imagine this not becoming a craze as equally as profound SPACs and EVs. But not yet. Seeds have only begum to be planted.
What happens in a quantum computer’s core processor?
Vice President of D-Wave, one of the biggest names in the game, says, “If we’re honest, everything we currently know about quantum mechanics can’t fully describe how a quantum computer works.”
Sounds wonderful, huh?
A classical computer, which is what you all have, possesses very limited resources for calculating and perform tasks. Information in the everyday computer (or related device) is encoded in “bits.” Bits are like tiny on/off switches; the off position is represented as a zero, and on is represented as a one.
In the on position, electrons pass through the circuit. In the off position, there’s no electrical activity.
When you string specific combinations and patterns of ones and zeroes together, you get binary code or language. All the instructions in you smartphones and FitBits and Roku and your laptop run on millions of ones and zeros. The image of a silver Octo coin on our Discord page: at a base level, it’s a steam of millions and millions ones and zeroes.
All of these one/zero (on/off) instructions, communicated throughout your devices, are carried out logically; that is, there’s a rational momentum of cause and effect.
I can’t give a proper example, but here’s a statement expressed in binary, the on/off sequence:
01100010 01100101 01100110 01101111 01110010 01100101 00100000 01101001 01110100 00100000 01110111 01100001 01110011 00100000 01100011 01101111 01101111 01101100
Each cluster represents a letter in a statement. Each zero means the transistor switch is closes, and electricity isn’t flowing. Each one means the switch is flicked on and electricity is flowing. Were this actually being processed inside your computer, the mechanisms in your computer would translate it for you and a message would appear on your screen:
BEFORE IT WAS COOL
Enter the Qubit. I’d be happy to write up the historical development of this new kind of bit, but not right now. The idea of a qubit goes as far back as 1959; the actual plans for how a quantum computer might work were devised in the 1980s and 90s. The task of building one—and creating the first Qubit chip—began in 1996.
A quantum processer has the same computational framework as a classical one. It has in its processors the on and off switches—zeros and ones—that preform logical operations. But, quantum bots have one other element: superposition. As noted earlier, superposition is the strange phenomenon explicit to quantum mechanics in which something can be in two places or two states simultaneously. A qubit can off. A qubit can be on. A qubit can be in an irrational state in which it is both off and on at the same time. (Viewed another way, it’s not the number zero; nor is it the number one; it is the number we cannot visualize that is both zero and one at the same time. It is electricity flowing and not flowing at the same time).
A qubit can also be in state that partially zero—let’s say half of zero (irrational)—thirty percent of a zero/one combo, and twenty percent of one…. Half off but not on + one third on and off simultaneously + one fifth on but not eighty percent off. This stuff doesn’t make sense to human minds, but physics doesn’t care whether it makes sense to us.
So, with all these values of one and zero in superposition states, our computational power becomes, well, godly. A quantum computer exploits the uncertainty principle.
The ride is bumpy. We’re hardly even there yet.
The latest developments in the last decade have focused on overcoming some serious problems inherent to qubits. Recall earlier I mentioned that in the quantum world, things don’t exist until they’re observed? (Or measured, assessed, manipulated…. Any kind of interaction or communication). It’s terribly difficult to bring electrons in a microchip into a state of superposition. Anything that might interfere with a qubit that churning out quantum calculations will destroy the magical superposition state, and cause the qubits to suddenly become regular old bits… just ones and zeros.
An interruption can be anything as simple as someone looking at the circuit (observation). It could be something as simple as an external disruption: a single free-floating electron in the room bumps up against the processor, and bam, no more quantum state. A tiny bit of stray magnetism from the person’s computer in the next room over: bam, no more quantum state.
This is the decoherence problem.
We are on the brink of solving it, and may already have.
When I have more time, I’m write about the different kinds of quantum computers, and exactly what they can do, which is everything. But before I do that, I’m gonna go take a break, and then come back with a list of all the quantum computing startups you best be on the lookout for, and well as all the companies that are building, or have built, quantum computers.
IonQ: I have been waiting for this day for a long time.
IonQ in Talks to Go Public Through Merger with DMY SPAC
The combined company is slated to be worth about $2 billion and a deal is set to be announced in coming weeks, said one of the people, who asked not to be identified because the matter is private. Silver Lake, MSD Partners, Bill Gates’s Breakthrough Energy and an affiliate of Hyundai Motor Co. are in talks to participate in a so-called strategic private investment in public equity, or PIPE.
DMY Technology is discussing raising additional equity from institutional investors, and new equity from strategic and institutional investors is set to total around $300 million, one of the people said. Existing IonQ investors are expected to roll their equity into the transaction, according to one of the people.
As with any deal that hasn’t been finalized, it’s possible terms change or talks fall apart. Representatives for IonQ and DMY declined to comment, as did spokesmen for Silver Lake and MSD Partners. Representatives of Hyundai and Breakthrough Energy Ventures didn’t immediately respond to requests for comment.
The SPAC, led by Chairman Harry You and Chief Executive Officer Niccolo De Masi, raised $300 million in November and said at the time it would pursue a target in consumer technology.
College Park, Maryland-based IonQ was founded in 2015 by Chris Monroe and Jungsang Kim and is led by CEO Peter Chapman. Its investors include Amazon Web Services, Samsung Catalyst Fund, GV (formerly known as Google Ventures), NEA, Lockheed Martin Corp., Airbus Ventures and Robert Bosch Venture Capital GmbH. IonQ in October unveiled what it describes as the world’s most powerful quantum computer.
Quantum has long been touted as the next frontier in technology. Such computers would be capable of simulating and understanding phenomena in the natural world instantly and providing the basis for systems that are unhackable. Intel Corp. and Microsoft Corp., among other companies, are also working to advance quantum computing. The technology also has potential implications for producing new materials or creating new drugs.
I did some reading today when my boss wasn’t around. One thing quantum computing will not break easily: bitcoin. Unless there’s a breakthrough, a quantum computer would need roughly 2,500 qubits to grab the key. Apparently, to run that many qubits, you’d need an about of energy that’s slightly lower than the total energy of the universe.
starting to get a little volume, im worried most people don’t know what the words mean on any article about this
raised a $20 million series B, led by GV (formerly Google Ventures) and New Enterprise Associates, the first investment GV has made in quantum computing technology.
In May 2019, former Amazon Prime executive Peter Chapman was named new CEO of the company.
founded by bill gates
I dont see how this doesnt rocket when ppl realize what this is
Bro, I know your “policy “ regarding buying at bottom… but I can see this being around $20. Your thoughts.?[3:00 AM]Was literally sleeping, when news came out ((
This is just the beginning. The next revolution is about to happen
OK, I’m gonna be dumping hardcore info here within the next 12 hours. Ha! I’m effing happy as can be right now!
Ya But can’t like, google, like, come in a beat them way faster bro
While Google’s paper may represent a milestone technologically, it’s facing plenty of competition to bring that technology to customers. Earlier this week, quantum hardware company IonQ announced that it raised $55 million from Samsung and others to accelerate the development of its quantum system, which can run at room temperature. Its trapped ion architecture could potentially be easier to deploy and might produce lower error rates in computation. While it’s still behind on producing chips with as many qubits as Google’s chip, its CEO, Peter Chapman, says the company plans to “double that every year” and will begin offering a quantum cloud service for its hardware in the first quarter of 2020.